And it all appeared to be scientifically based. It appears, too, that it is always good if science receives an ethical require- ment and is testable and able to be critically analyzed outside of science. In France ethnological discussion was uninhibited by Protestant Evangelicalism and could take a more radical turn than in Britain or even the United States.
But over against all appeals to modern scientific research results, we should retain a certain healthy skepticism regarding scientific results that are presented as if they were absolute final conclusions.
Colonialism Any book about racism should actually include a history of colonialism, which, however, is not possible to present in a short and compact manner. On the History of Racism and its Justification 51 ideology found everywhere among all colonial rulers.
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Additionally, colonialism was also strongly influenced by competition and war that existed between Europeans. Next to this there were, naturally, colonial times and colonial powers, such as the Roman, the Ottoman, the Chinese, or the So- viet empire, that throughout all times and on all continents were connected with the subjugation of many people. Slavery While African peoples had enslaved each other for a long time, and while Arab princes finally became the lords of the African slave trade, the European entanglement began in when a Portuguese expedition in Lagos unloaded slaves from Mauritania.
In , the first 50 black Africans were brought from Spain to Haiti to work in the silver mines, and in the first slaves arrived on the soil of what is today the United States of America. The transatlantic slave trade was born, 59 which was a business triangle in which cheap goods, hard liquor, and weapons from Europe, through the inclusion of Arab slave traders, were often exchanged for slaves, and these slaves were then exchanged for American colonial goods.
With this it was taken for granted that there would be a social and physical death of a por- tion of the slaves, since slaves were valued and treated as goods. Between and it is estimated that Of this total, 9. Between 1 and 2 million slaves died during approximately 50, passages. It is at this point that the designation Evangelicals came about in the first place.
This applies to the legal abolishment of slavery in Great Britain as well as to the anti- slavery movement in the USA. By all Quakers had released their slaves. Wesley published his book Thoughts upon Slavery in Be- ginning in , slave owners were excommunicated by Methodists. In England many friends of Wesley who were involved in politics became active against slavery.
The most famous of these is William Wilberforce William Wilberforce had been a representative in the British House of Commons since He converted to Evangelical Protestantism in on a trip through continental Europe and founded the Abolition Society in order to elevate morals and especially abolish the slave trade.
In a Parlia- mentary meeting in , Wilberforce, along with William Pitt, for the first time petitioned in the House of Commons to abolish the slave trade. Again in a petition was filed, this time successfully. Yet implementa- tion was prevented due to war and the situation in the colonies. It was not until that an act of Parliament ended the British slave trade.
Slave traders within the British sphere of control were viewed as pirates and pun- ished. The United States of America followed, whereby beginning in the slave trade was forbidden.
At that point Wilberforce set his sights on implementing this prohibition in the rest of the civilized world. Upon his urging, Lord Castlereagh suc- cessfully raised this as an issue at the Congress of Vienna. Finally, there were agreements in which France, Spain, and Portugal obligated them- selves to forbid the slave trade 60 See Unander, Shattering, pp. In he presented a motion in Parliament to reduce the number of slaves in the British West Indies.
The government began preparing the emancipation of all slaves in , and Wilberforce held impassioned speeches throughout the fierce debate until in , due to health reasons, he had to retire. He died in and was buried in the church of the British crown, Westminster Abbey. Slavery Today Unfortunately, slavery still exists, even if in the meantime it is prohib- ited almost everywhere, lastly in Saudi Arabia in and in Oman in The oldest human rights organization in the world, the British organiza- tion Anti-Slavery International, reckons that there are million slaves worldwide. In India and Pakistan, slaves primarily work in stone quarries, and in Pakistan alone the number of slaves is estimated at 20 million.
In Thailand, Brazil, and India it is children who are above all enslaved, many of them in the prostitution industry. The most widely spread form of slav- ery today is a brutal form of debt servitude, by which families incur higher debts for their work implements than they receive in wages.
About one million slaves still work there on sugar plantations. They could ask for damages in the case of bodily harm, go to court, buy their freedom, etc. It should be emphasized that the New Testament writers did not overlook the mistakes of slavery. In Philemon Paul pleads for the release of a slave. Genocide Genocide under international Criminal Law Genocide, first included within international criminal law, was increas- ingly made a punishable offense in many national legal systems.diw.agencyhype.com/6169-1948-buick-manual.php
Einführung in die Geschichte Rußlands
Within the framework of the United Nations and international law, genocide is the gravest offense. Moreover, and unlike a war of aggression, it is clearly defined and something for which international criminal courts and tribunals are used. It can also be prosecuted by countries other than those subject to it. Since the cases of genocide in Yugoslavia and Rwanda, for which international tribunals have been utilized, and since the forma- tion of the International Court of Justice in Den Haag in , the con- demnation of genocide has increasingly taken on practical importance.
With this it is to be noted that it was not just the carrying out of geno- cide, but rather the intention to commit genocide which is sufficient for a charge.
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On the other hand, the sheer killing of many people belonging to a group, which is not done in a genocidal sense, is not yet considered to come under criminal law. The Steps to Genocide 1. Symbolization — Hate symbols and terms of hatred stigmatize the group. Dehumanization — A group is compared with sub-humans, apes, ani- mals, viruses, etc.
Polarizing Propaganda — Propaganda provides the condition whereby genocide is seen as normal or unavoidable and can be supported. Organization — The preconditions for genocide are created, e. Extermination — The actual murder occurs via mass killings or by de- priving people of their basis for survival. Although no official numbers are available, the estimates range from , to , Aborigines in , which by had shrunk to 31, Genocide committed against Aborigines and their oppression ran through three phases.
Up until about Aborigines were practically unprotected game and were driven off by the scores and hunted and killed as game. They were not considered peo- ple, but rather dangerous animals. As a result of massacres, the British government enacted a law in called the Aborigines Act, a law pro- tecting the original inhabitants that had as a result geographical racial sepa- ration. Aborigines then began to live in enclosed remote woodlands and island areas, which they were not allowed to leave and into which no set- tlers could go.
Beginning in the s, an assimilation policy was also instated. It was not until that Aborigines received the right to vote, and it was not until the s that racial segregation in the schools was repealed. In the last decades of Ottoman-Turkish rule they, along with Aramaic speaking Christians self designated: Syrio- Arameans, Assyrians, Chaldeans , became the sacrifices of state planned and directed massacres as well as deportations, which genocide research assesses as genocide according to the criteria of the UN Genocide Conven- tion It was namely the genocide of 1.
He failed, however, due to the re- sistance of the delegation from Nazi Germany. While the Armenian popu- lation of the Ottoman Empire shrunk by three-fifths within two years spring to February , the extermination of the Greek Orthodox 64 I. On the History of Racism and its Justification 57 population lasted a decade and was executed at varying locations. It is for that reason called a cumulative genocide. World War II cost the lives of And all of these are rather low esti- mates. Especially alarming is that out of this total the direct number of National Socialistic crimes not included as actions of war according to the current state of research is 13 million people, among them 6 million Jews, 3.
Mass Extermination by the Khmer Rouge: During the reign of terror of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia from , it is estimated that out of a total population of 7 million, 1. One-half were killed in death camps and the other half through forced labor in the rice fields or through starvation. Many researchers view the mass murders of the Khmer Rouge not as genocide but as something purely politically moti- vated. Indeed, in such case there was still among the mass murders geno- cide with respect to a portion of the killings, so it can be said that almost all Vietnamese in the country were killed out of a racist motivation.
Genocide in Rwanda: Between April and July the army, police, and civilian population of the Hutu majority killed approximately , to 1 million people. Neighbors killed their neighbors with machetes, and the remain- ing Tutsis fled to the Congo, Burundi, and Uganda. Typical for the senselessness of racism is the fact that the Hutu and Tutsi are not really different people groups.
Rather, they are social stratifications. At least it can be said that no difference at all was made between Hutu and Tutsi prior to Germans and then the Belgian colonial masters relied on the richer Tutsis in order to control the country, and they additionally considered them to be Aryan. When independence was granted in , the Belgians saw to it that the Hutu, who represented the majority of the population, received power. In the accidental death of the Hutu president provided extremists the pretense for seizing power and conducting genocide.
The international community looked on silently for three months, until the military arm of the Tutsi resistance con- quered the capital of Kigali with the support of neighboring countries. In these actions were determined by the International Court of Justice to be genocide.